By 18 February 1938, the Japanese Army had exhausted itself in Nanking, and about 300,000 Chinese civilians had been dead, maimed, mutilated, or raped to death in Nanking, and the first reports were reaching the world outside. Refugees, diplomats, the odd reporter, and the sheer volume of horror carried the story, but it was not widely reported. Japan, to this day, denies the scale, and is generally silent about the issue.
More than seventy years later, the issue of Japanese war guilt is indisputable, but the issue of exactly what atrocities were committed is not, especially in Japan. The west insists that massacres like Nanking happened, and that the many scores of perpetrators be punished (albeit many already have been). Japan insists that these incidents were exaggerated, that “comfort women” were volunteers, and that Unit 731 was not a biological warfare outfit that used humans as guinea pigs. At minimum, Japan often suggests, Japan was only doing what was necessary to survive.
While the gods of Expediency often is worshiped in wartime, that does not excuse atrocity. To say “I know you are but what am I” to accusers holding evidence of barbarity (deflecting guilt by saying “so did you”) is just frivolous. While the Americans burned Tokyo and a score of other Japanese cities with firebombs and torpedoed hospital ships that routinely carried ammunition, the Soviets invading Manchuria in 1945 were as brutal to the Japanese and Chinese they encountered as they were to the Germans, Yes, these crimes were committed in the name of the Expediency gods, but that does not excuse Japan’s denials.
Japan’s excuse-making deflection may be intolerable, but so is the litany of finger-pointing every year when some prominent Japanese visits the Yasukuni shrine. The west insists that this is a place of worship for the “killers” of WWII. Trouble is, it’s for them…as well as for every other Japanese who ever died in any battle, including WWI and the Peking Relief in 1900, side by side with the west’s finest fighting men.
The reason Nanking matters even to this day is though Japan was guilty, so is popular perception of a war that had enough tragedy to go around. No one has to compound it by making up things, or by denying the undeniable.
What Were They Thinking: A Fresh Look and Japan At War, 1945-45 is a study of Japan’s motivations and methods up to and including WWII. Available in hardback and paperback at fine booksellers everywhere.