There’s a great deal to recommend ending conflicts, and over the centuries a great number have, indeed, ended. But, too, 21 November is also (in)famous for beginnings: The Mayflower Compact in 1620; North Carolina ratified the Constitution and became the twelfth United State (an awkward construction)in 1789; and Napoleon Bonaparte was promoted to General and Commander-in-Chief of the French Army in 1791. But, on with the show.
…from a British perspective, a bigger problem was the German Imperial Navy’s High Seas Fleet, which was arguably one of the many causes of the war.
At the end of the Great War on 11 November, 1918, there was a great deal of unfinished business that had to be taken care of. The biggest issue was the huge armies: they had to be paid off and sent home. But, from a British perspective, a bigger problem was the German Imperial Navy’s High Seas Fleet, which was arguably one of the many causes of the war. As a part of the surrender, the fleet was to be turned over to the allied powers in stages. First, the U-boats were surrendered at Harwich, on the eastern coast of Britain, on 20 November. A huge multi-national fleet of 370 warships met the 70 German warships at the Firth of Forth in Scotland on 21 November, 1918. From there they were escorted to the British Home Fleet’s wartime base at Scapa Flow. There they would remain, with skeleton crews and disarmed guns, until 21 June, 1919, when the ships were scuttled by their crews.
The dispute was the control of some of the least hospitable land on Earth, high in the Himalayas. The lines that early 19th Century British surveyors were, inexplicably, unacceptable to the sovereign states of China and India.
Among the many conflicts that likely should not have happened and, ultimately, puzzle observers and nonparticipants was the Sino-Indian War if 1962, also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict of 1962. The dispute was the control of some of the least hospitable land on Earth, high in the Himalayas. The lines that early 19th Century British surveyors were, inexplicably, unacceptable to the sovereign states of China and India. Added to this was the further complication of Tibet that insisted that it, too was sovereign, and could make its borders as it wished. China and India had been dickering about that border, and Tibet’s sovereignty since 1959, when India granted asylum to the Dalai Lama, who fled Tibet during the “uprising” that looked an awful lot like the beginning of a war of independence. On 20 October 1962, Chinese forces overwhelmed Indians along the disputed McMahon Line, and rather quickly came to a halt. Fighting after that was sporadic and often desultory. On 20 November China, having proved its point while fielding an army eight times larger than India’s in the region, unilaterally declared a ceasefire and withdrew 0n 21 November, 1962. Few people had heard of this conflict fought at the roof of the world in part because the world was fairly well occupied with the Cuban Missile Crisis on the other side of the planet. The Sino-Indian War of 1962 is remarkable in that the fighting was contained to the border region, neither naval nor air forces engaged in any fighting, and all of it took place at altitudes exceeding 14,000 feet.
One of the most extraordinary military operations on the 1980s took place on the island of Grenada.
One of the most extraordinary military operations on the 1980s took place on the island of Grenada. After a coup saw the island nation’s Prime Minister Maurice Bishop murdered, the stability of the island, particularly the safety of Americans on the island in October 1983, Ronald Reagan sent the controversial Rapid Deployment Force to stabilize the government. On 25 October 1983, US Army airborne troops, Marines, Navy SEALS and a small contingent of Jamaican security forces landed on the island, quickly overwhelmed the Cubans (variously described as engineers, special forces, diplomatic personnel, or civilian aid workers, depending on taste) and Grenadan rebels, and secured the island with a minimum of casualties. Urgent Fury, as the operation was called, ended on 21 November 1983. This has often been seen as the resurrection of the American military that had been reorganized after Vietnam. While it was wildly popular in the US, it was rather roundly condemned by other world leaders and the UN.
Donald Trump may have put on his TV persona just so he could get elected, and may turn out to be a steady, stable and otherwise dull centrist Republican that could actually do some good. This was the Gaslighting of the Mass Media.
Finally, an observation: It appears as if the Trump Organization has fooled everyone. Not once has Donald Trump, since his election, indulged in any of his previously signature outrageous behavior. Since the transition began Trump has not made any more outrageous claims, no more egregious threats, and no more denigrating epithets. Instead, by all accounts, he’s acting like the businessman/dealmaker that’s made him wealthy. And, because he’s completely uninteresting that way, unelectable. Yes, I’m afraid so. Donald Trump may have put on his TV persona just so he could get elected, and may turn out to be a steady, stable and otherwise dull centrist Republican that could actually do some good. This was the Gaslighting of the Mass Media. Oops!